Despite chromosomes having a large number of genes, those genes are arranged in a very specific sequence. The chromosomes, and therefore the genes, are made up of the chemical substance called DNA. The X originates from the mother, and the Y chromosome comes from the father. Humans have anywhere from 20,000 to 30,000 genes. Genes contain deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which contain the genetic information used to synthesize proteins. Email address: email@example.com. A gene is a locus on a chromosome which encodes proteins. We can use the analogy of a city to better understand the relationship between DNA molecules, genes and chromosomes. The function of the remaining 97% has only a regulatory function, and for the most part it has yet to be studied. So, the relationship between genes and chromosomes is that chromosomes are made of the DNA, which carries several genes. Humans have about 300 to 400 abnormal genes, but they are less likely to develop problems if one part of the affected chromosome is still normal. Depending on the abnormality, people can be born with or develop mild to severe developmental problems. Only about 25 percent of the nitrogen base pairs of DNA in human chromosomes make up genes and their regulatory elements. Chromosomes are made of DNA 3. It has a code which tells your body how to make a specific protein. Proteins form the structure of our body and play an important role in the processes that keep us alive. Genes are made of a chemical called DNA, which is short for "deoxyribonucleic acid". In all eukaryotic cells, the chromosomes occur as threadlike strands in the nucleus. Chromosomes are like the carriers for your DNA, containing hundreds to thousands of genes which are packaged into long strands of tightly coiled DNA, capable of being stored in the nucleus of each of your cells. The genome carries genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms. The genetic code is organized into long strands called chromosomes, consisting of DNA and proteins. Chromosomes are all of your carefully packaged genetic heritage, consisting of DNA (long helical molecules, digitally storing your entire genome, in Genes (DNA sequences encoding all proteins and RNA), with supporting Histone proteins, around which DNA is tightly wrapped, so forming DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. The majority of human genes have two or more possible versions, called alleles. So, for example, a gene encodes for the insulin protein, which plays an important role in helping your body control the amount of sugar in your blood.Genes are the basic unit of genetics. DNA DNA (or deoxyribonucleic acid) is the molecule that carries the genetic information in all cellular forms of life and some viruses. Most cells in the human body have 23 pairs of chromosomes, with the exception of a few cells like red blood cells, egg cells and sperm. For example, have you been told that you have 'your mother's eyes' or 'your grandmother's nose'?Genes influence what we look like on the outside and how we work on the inside. This RNA molecule will either be dir… A chromosome contains hundreds to thousands of genes. When you arrange these four bases to create a particular segment, it is called a gene. It contains unique genetic codes and thus holds instructions that serve as the blueprint for proteins in the body. While we are on the topic of genes we should talk about RNA. A gene is a unit of inheritance. Genes are the segments of DNA that code for proteins. We all start off as just one cell at the time of fertilisation. A photograph of a person's chromosomes, arranged according to size, is called a karyotype. Here are some of the most common terms and what you need to know about them. In summary, DNA, genes, and chromosomes are very similar in their 'composition', since genes are stretches of DNA that codes for certain proteins and chromosomes are made up of coiled DNA. Large areas of chromosome that are abnormal can be due to a genetic disorder or an acquired mutation. A chromosome is considered as the highest organized form of DNA. Each Gene is a subunit of DNA. The main difference between DNA and chromosome is regarding the role of genes. It contains chemical codes which guide life processes, written by using those four letters. Genes are segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that contain the code for a specific protein that functions in one or more types of cells in the body. 18. A chromosome contains hundreds to thousands of genes.